Cohort study of executive cognitive function thought control and eating behavior among bariatric surgery patients (Paperback)
OBESITY That which once was considered an indicator of wealth is now turning into a lifethreatening hazard - Obesity. It is an issue that comes to light and gains microscopic attention only when it starts spreading in large amounts. It was in 2013 when the American Medical Association (AMA) designated obesity a chronic disease (Denver, Obesity Medicine Association; 2013). According to Merriam Webster, a disease is "a condition . . . that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms." Considering the idea that obesity is linked with insufficient willpower, lack of discipline, and bad choices; the thought of weight loss itself may become a serious task. A glimmering idea of such a challenge can be understood by a thorough definition of obesity given by Obesity Medicine Association, "chronic, relapsing, multifactorial, neurobehavioral disease, wherein an increase in body fat promotes adipose tissue dysfunction and abnormal fat mass physical forces, resulting in adverse metabolic, biomechanical, and psychosocial health consequences". According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2021), 'obesity is one of the most common, yet among the most neglected, public health problems in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that can lead to various health risks (World Health Organisation; 2021). The joint statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society (USA) defines obesity as "an unhealthy excess of body fat, which increases the risk of medical illness and premature mortality." (Amarya et al, 2014; Kumanyika et al., 2007). A normal healthy human body may have 25 to 35 billion fat cells; the obese body carries about 100 to 150 billion cells (West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources). As per the National Health, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI; 2021), the condition of overweight is "having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and/or water while obesity is having a high amount of extra body fat". 1.1.1Obesity magnetizes mortality India, the second most populous country in the world with 1.3 billion people, is presently experiencing a rapid epidemiological transition (Worldometers,2017). Undernutrition which was one of the commanding issues three decades ago has been inconspicuously replaced by the concerns of overweight and obesity today (Pingali P. et al., 2019; Figure 1.1). Two of the major growth contributors in the prevalence rate of obesity are industrialization and urbanization (Pradeepa et al., 2015).